In recent years, anti-microbial plants have become more popular due to their nutritional characteristics. Traditional healers have utilized anti-microbial plants to prevent or treat infectious diseases for thousands of years; modern medicine is attempting to replicate their achievements. Secondary metabolites are abundant in plants, and there is a broad diversity of them. Some of them are mentioned below:
Alfalfa has been proven to decrease cholesterol levels and also aid with blood sugar control and menopause symptoms. It’s also popular due to its high levels of vitamin C and K, copper, folate, and magnesium. As an anti-microbial plant, Alfalfa has a very low-calorie count and is proving to have excellent anti-inflammatory properties.
Aloe Vera gel is renowned for relieving sunburn and healing wounds. It provides healthy chemicals for plants. It has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects (Manvitha, 2014).
Aloe Vera reduces constipation and dental plaque and aids in the treatment of cancer. It has the potential to improve and prevent wrinkles and skin damage. This anti-microbial plant also lowers blood sugar.
Roots, seeds, and fruit are utilized for the production of medicinal products. Angelica is used for indigestion, flatulence, lack of appetite, arthritis, circulatory difficulties, runny nose, anxiety, plague, and sleep disorders (insomnia)
Anise is an herb used for a variety of medical purposes. Women use anise to enhance their milk flow during infancy. Anise is also used as an excretive to boost cough and as a diuretic to improve urine flow.
Apples are very beneficial to humans, and eating them is associated with a reduced risk of several major illnesses, including cancer and diabetes. This fruit is excellent for fiber and vitamin C. Apples promote heart health in many ways and reduce swelling.
Ashwagandha is an ancient herb. This herb also gives your body and brain several other benefits. It may increase brain function, decrease blood sugar and cortisol, and assist in combating anxiety and depression symptoms.
Bael is a plant. In the production of medicine, unripe fruit, roots, leaves, and branches are commonly used. All of the components of Bea’s plant are highly therapeutic. Herbal medicines treat chronic diarrhea, dysentery, peptic ulcers, astringency laxatives, and respiratory problems due to anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties.
Balsam pear is a traditional Asian medicinal and kitchen item. It is very important to assist with stomach problems. Individuals living with diabetes need help. Fruit extracts may also aid in the prevention and treatment of cancer and malaria.
For centuries, berries have been used in folk medicine to treat stomach problems, infections and to help soothe skin diseases. Barberry has many valuable components, including bebeerine that works as an antioxidant, and may help control diseases such as diabetes, tooth infections, and acne treatment.
Basil essential oils, mainly eugenol, linalool, and citronellol, may help with bodily inflammation. These anti-inflammatory characteristics are proven to reduce the likelihood of inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, heart, and bowel disease problems (Bower, 2016). Basil contains anti-microbial elements.
People use black pepper in their mouth for arthritis, asthma, upset stomach, bronchitis, diarrhea (cholera), colic, depression, diarrhea, gas, headache, menstruation discomfort, stuffy nose, sinus infection, dizziness, discolored skin, weight loss, and cancer.
Calories are minimal, but fiber, vitamin C, and vitamin K are rich. Blueberries are the king of antioxidant foods. It helps to prevent cancer and aging by reducing DNA damage. Blueberries protect your blood cholesterol from oxidation. It may lower blood pressure.
The other effective anti-microbial plant is buchu. Buchu is used as a diuretic and a stomach tonic for treating inflammation, kidney and urinary tract infections. Other applications include cystitis, urethritis, prostatitis, and gout carminative effects and therapy. Conditions of Leukorrhea and yeast are also used.
Burdock is used to improving urine flow, eliminate germs, decrease fever, and “purify” their blood, also used to treat colds, cancer, gastrointestinal anorexia (GI). Problems, joint discomfort (rheumatism), gout, bladder infections, syphilis complications, and skin disorders including acne and psoriasis (Ferracane, 2010).
Butcher’s broom, also known as a broom of the Butcher, is an effective anti-microbial plant. The root is utilized for medicinal products. A butcher’s broom can be used for hemorrhoids, gallstones (skin), and symptoms including discomfort, heaviness, leg cramps, swelling of the leg, varicose veins, itching, and swelling.
Cardamom may help reduce blood pressure because of its antioxidant and diuretic effects – Antioxidants and diuretics lower blood pressure. It has cancer-fighting compounds. It protects against chronic diseases through anti-inflammatory effects.
Cardamom can also be utilized for the treatment of digestive conditions like ulcers. It also treats bad breath and cavities.
Caraway is used for digestive issues like heartburn, bloating, gas, lack of appetite, stomach, and intestinal spasms. Its oil is also used to assist patients to cough up phlegm, improve urinary control, fight germs and alleviate constipation.
The other effective anti-microbial plant is cascara. Cascara is used as a laxative for the treatment of gallstones, liver disease, and cancer. “Bitter tonic” is a remedy that some people take. It is sometimes necessary to utilize bitter cascara extract as a flavoring ingredient in meals and beverages.
Castor oil has been used for a very long time as a medication to treat various diseases. The seeds are used for birth control, constipation, leprosy, and syphilis. Castor oil is used as a constipation laxative, starting labor during pregnancy and starting breast milk flow.
It contains antiviral and antibacterial chemicals, in other words, anti-microbial chemicals. It contains antioxidants that are not inflammatory. Its prebiotic characteristics may promote good health. It reduces blood sugar and types 2 diabetes risk. It also alleviates gastrointestinal pain.
Chamomile is considered a digestive relaxant and is used to treat numerous gastrointestinal disorders, including flatulence, indigestion, diarrhea, anorexia, nausea, and vomiting. It is also used to alleviate colic, croup, and fever.
Chili pepper has preventative and therapeutic qualities for a wide range of conditions, including cancer, rheumatism, stiff joints, toxic and headache bronchitis, chest colds, arthritis, cardiac arrhythmia, and stomach usage.
Paprika contains capsaicin, a chemical compound found in peppers with a broad range of health benefits for the body. Examples include the fact that it has antioxidant properties and may aid in the reduction of the risk of cancer and heart disease.
The next anti-microbial plant is Clove. Clove is used to treat stomach upset and as an expectorant. Expectorants make coughing symptoms easier. In addition, clove oil is helpful for diarrhea, hernia, and breathlessness. For intestinal gas, nausea, vomiting, clove, and clove oil should be used (Singletary, 2014).
People eat coca leaves to alleviate hunger and tiredness and improve physical performance. In addition, Coca extracts are used to stimulate gastrointestinal function, sedate and treat asthma, colds, and other illnesses.
A corn cockle is a type of plant. Medicine is made from the roots and seeds of plants. Despite grave safety concerns, individuals use maize corn for fluid retention, cough, menstruation problems, worms, and yellow skin (jaundice).
Coriander is a plant. Coriander’s leaves and fruits (seeds) are used as food and medicine. Coriander is used to treat long-term intestinal diseases such as IBS, constipation, diarrhea, flatulence, nausea, foot athletes, and many others.
The cilantro plant contains duodenum, an antibacterial agent, which may help protect your body against contaminated food infections and diseases—the chemical works against the Salmonella bacterium, a food illness that may endanger life.
Cranberries contain a variety of antioxidants and vitamins that are beneficial to your health. Besides the loss of weight, cranberries are a superfood for their high levels of nutrients and antioxidants. Cranberry nutrients reduce the risk of urinary tract infection (UTIs), cancer prevention, better immunological function, and lowered blood pressure (Kowalska, 2016).
Dandelion is renowned for its wide variety of therapeutic qualities in traditional herbal medicine techniques. Various medical conditions, including cancer, acne, liver problems, and digestive issues, have been treated with them. The diuretic action and potassium content of dandelion may decrease blood pressure.
Dill is rich in flavonoids that have shown their contribution to reducing the risk of heart disease and stroke. In addition, dill is intended to enhance heart health. Animal research indicates that dill may help decrease LDL levels of cholesterol.
It has been proven that Echinacea enhances immunity, blood sugar, anxiety, inflammation, and skin health. It may potentially have cancer-resistant qualities. Echinacea is used by individuals to decrease the length of the common cold and flu and to alleviate symptoms such as a sore throat, headaches, and fever.
In traditional medicine, elecampane is a soothing herb used to alleviate the toxins linked with bronchitis, asthma, and whipping injuries. Elecampane is a demulcent herb that may cure coughs caused by bronchitis, asthma, and whip cough, among other things.
Eucalyptus is an evergreen shrub often utilized for its therapeutic qualities. Flavonoids that are antioxidants that may reduce the risk of some cancers, heart disease, and dementia are abundant in eucalyptus tea. It also improves the symptoms of asthma.
Vitamins, minerals, fiber, and protein are rich in fava beans. They are expected to provide remarkable health benefits, including enhanced engine performance and immunity. Regular fava bean eating may raise iron levels in the blood and alleviate the symptoms of anemia due to insufficient iron intake.
Traditional uses of garlic include treating bronchitis, hypertension, tuberculosis (TB), liver issues, diarrhea, flatulence, constipation, colic, intestinal worms, rheumatism, diabetes, and fevers, among other ailments.
Ginseng was found to help decrease inflammatory indicators and protect against oxidative damage. It may boost the immune system in cancer patients and potentially enhance the benefits of some vaccines. The medication includes complimentary ginsenosides and gintonin.
Grapefruit is high in anti-microbial chemicals, antioxidants, vitamin C, and fiber. The nutrients included in grapefruit may contribute to good skin and protect it against diverse diseases. it can also play a role in maintaining weight.
Green tea also helps you lose weight and decrease your chances of many illnesses such as diabetes, heart, and cancer. It is full of antioxidants with numerous health advantages, including enhanced cognitive function, weight reduction, cancer protection, and cardiovascular disease risk.
People take Syrian rue by mouth to terminate the pregnancy, for the absence of a monthly menstrual period, cancer, depression, diabetes, painful menstruation, hypothermia, insomnia, pain, parasites, Parkinson’s disease, and a joint disorder. Many people apply Syrian rue to the skin for hair loss, dandruff, eczema, hemorrhoids, and scaly, itchy skin.
Hop is a plant. The dried floral portion of the plant is utilized for the production of medication. Hops are used for anxiety, sleep impairment (insomnia), other sleep disorders, restlessness, stress, excitability, ADHD, nervousness, and irritability.
The leaves are often used as a seasoning, but the roots are used as medicine. Children use horseradish for urinary tract infections, kidney stones, fluid retention, tumors, bronchitis, achy joints (rheumatism), and gall bladder problems.
Hyssop is used for intestinal problems and digestive involving the liver and bile, intestinal discomfort, intestinal gas, colic, and appetite loss. It is also used for respiratory problems like cough, common cold, breathing, sore throat, and asthma.
Lantana extractsis used in folk medicine for the treatment of cancer, pox, measles, asthma, ulcers, swelling, tumors, hypertension, bilious fever, cataracts, tetanus, rheumatism, malaria, and abdominal visceral atoxy.
Lavender oil contains antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties that may be useful in treating minor burns and bug bites, among other things. It may be beneficial in the treatment of anxiety, insomnia, depression, and restlessness.
Legume (West Africa)
Eating more beans may lower the risk of blood sugar, blood pressure, heart rate, and other heart diseases and diabetes. Antioxidants found in beans and legumes help to protect cells, fight illness, and slow down the aging process. Legumes are calorie-low yet make you feel full.
Lemon balm (Melissa)
Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis), a member of the mint family, is considered a soothing plant. During the Middle Ages, it was used to relieve tension and anxiety, encourage sleep, enhances appetite, and alleviates gastrointestinal pain and discomfort (including gas and bloating, as well as colic).
Lemons are high in fiber, vitamin C, and other plant-based nutrients necessary for good health. Lemons may be beneficial for heart health, weight management, and digestive wellbeing. Lemon juice may be beneficial in the prevention of kidney stones. It helps in the maintenance of gut health by reducing inflammation. Along with vitamin C, lemons are an excellent source of potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and other trace minerals, among other things.
Marigold has primary medical uses, including contusions, bruises, and varicose veins, in all skin diseases due to its anti-microbial properties. It also treats minor skin damage and irritation effectively. Marigold ointment improves eczema and sunburn wound healing.
Mountain Tobacco is known by the Latin name Arnica. Arnica has a long history of medicinal use, and it is especially well-known for its use topically to treat contusions and sprains. Arnica increases local blood flow and accelerates healing by acting as an anti-inflammatory and speeding up the rate of internal bleeding absorption, among other things.
The white oak tree is a specific species of tree. Bark has also been found to have therapeutic properties. As a tea, white oak bark may be used to increase the appetite, improve digestion, and treat arthritis, diarrhea, colds, fever, cough, and bronchitis, among other ailments and conditions.
People treat constipation, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes-related blood vessel issues, and pain-related ear infections, arthritis, and gall bladder illnesses using olive oil. Olive oil is also used to treat intestinal gas jaundice and swelling of the abdomen due to gas.
Onions include antioxidants and chemicals that combat inflammation, decrease triglycerides and lower cholesterol levels, which may all reduce the risk of cardiac disease. Their powerful anti-inflammatory effects may also assist in lowering their blood pressure and protecting them against clotting.
Orange peel is also rich in pro-vitamin A, folate, riboflavin, thiamine, vitamin B6 and calcium. It is also rich in plant chemicals known as polyphenol. It may prevent and treat several chronic diseases, including diabetes of type, obesity, and Alzheimer’s disease.
Papaya is a kind of plant used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat many ailments. It is used as a diuretic and sedative to prevent and treat gastrointestinal disorders, including parasite infections of the intestines and bowel cancer. It is also used to treat neuralgia and the growth of elephantoid muscles.
Pulsatilla is also used for headache tension, hyperactivity, sleeping problems (insomnia), hives, asthma, and other lung illnesses. The plant helps soothe earaches, migraines, nerve pain (neuralgia), overall restlessness, gastrointestinal issues (GI), and urinary tract disturbance.
Peppermint is a standard folk treatment for many illnesses. Calming effects should be believed. It is used to treat flatulence, menstruation discomfort, diarrhea, nausea, depressive anxiety, muscular and nerve pain, common cold, indigestion, and IBS.
Periwinkle enhances brain health, enhances brain blood circulation, boosts brain metabolism, increases mental productivity, and prevents memory and difficulties with concentration and weakness. This plant also improves memory and thinking and prevents early brain cell aging.
Poppy seeds can be found in Europe, Asia, and Africa. The seeds are a type of plant that is thought to have many health benefits. These include the promotion of digestion, improved skin and hair health, and the treatment of headaches, coughing, and asthma.
Rosemary is a vital source of anti-microbial, antioxidants, and anti-inflammatory chemicals, which help strengthen the immune system and promote circulation. It is considered a cognitive stimulant and may contribute to improving memory and cognition. It is also known that alertness, intellect, and concentration improve.
Sainfoin is a dry fodder crop that fixes nitrogen in the soil and aids in the reduction of parasitic worm diseases in livestock. It also improves the quality of meat, aids in the removal of methane production in cattle, and aids in the pollination of insects.
The next anti-microbial plant is the snake plant. By absorbing and removing harmful chemicals, snake plants may provide adequate protection against airborne allergens. Snake plants may absorb chemicals that cause cancer, including CO2, benzene, formaldehyde, xylene, toluene, and carbon dioxide (Devi, 2010).
John’s wort is also antibacterial, antioxidant, and antiviral. It is applied to the skin to help heal wounds and burns because of its anti-inflammatory effects. St. John’s wort is used to aid in the healing of wounds associated with various diseases, including renal and lung problems, insomnia, and depression.
Sweet flag, calamus
The rhizome of the sweet flag (Acorus calamus) plant is used for various medicinal purposes. When applied topically, the paste reduces the pain and swelling associated with rheumatism and swollen joints. Both inside and externally, the plant is used.
When used topically, thyme can be used to treat bronchitis and other respiratory ailments such as coughing and sore throat, colic and arthritis as well as stomach upset and pain (gastritis). Thyme also treats diarrhea and bedwetting, movement disorders in children (dyspraxia), intestinal gas (flatulence), parasitic worm infections, and skin diseases.
The other most beneficial, anti-microbial plant is turmeric. Turmeric has numerous scientifically proven beneficial effects, such as enhancing heart health and preventing Alzheimer’s and cancer (Singletary, 2020). It may also relieve depression and arthritic symptoms.
People use sweet woodruff to cure lung, stomach, liver, gallbladder, and urinary problems. They utilize it for heart issues, “blood cleansing,” “poor veins,” and other circulation problems. Other uses include treating restlessness, hysteria, and difficulty sleeping (insomnia).
Fever, familiar coldness, hay fever, menstruation absence, dysentery, diarrhea, appetite loss, gastrointestinal discomfort (GI), and sweating are among conditions that yarrow is used to treat. Some people find that fresh leaves may provide toothache relief.
The next anti-microbial plant is Bayberry. Bayberry is a plant that is used to cause vomiting in large amounts. Some people also use the drug to stimulate their circulatory systems. Bayberry is often used as a gargle for sore throats, a vaginal shower, and an ointment for skin ulcers and wounds, among other things.
The Oregon grape treats stomach ulcers, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and bowel cleansing. In some cultures, it is also used as a tonic for bowel treatment and cleansing. In addition, an extract from the Oregon grape may be applied to the skin as a disinfectant and psoriasis therapy.
Bower, A., Marquez, S., & de Mejia, E. G. (2016). The health benefits of selected culinary herbs-and spices found in the traditional Mediterranean diet. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 56(16), 2728-2746.
Devi, N. D. (2017). Medicinal values of Trichosanthus cucumerina L.(snake gourd)-a review. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 1-10.
Ferracane, R.,-Graziani, G., Gallo, M.,Fogliano, V., & Ritieni, A. (2010). Metabolic-profile of the bioactive compounds of burdock (Arctium lappa) seeds, roots-and leaves. Journal of-pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis, 51(2), 399-404.
Kowalska, K., & Olejnik, A. (2016). Beneficial effects of cranberry-in the prevention of obesity and related complications: Metabolic syndrome and diabetes–A review. Journal of functional foods, 20, 171-181.
Manvitha, K., & Bidya, B. (2014). Aloe-vera: a wonder plant its history, cultivation-and medicinal uses. Journal of Pharmacognosy and-Phytochemistry, 2(5), 85-88.
Singletary, K. (2014). Clove: Overview of Potential Health Benefits. Nutrition Today, 49(4), 207-224.
Singletary, K. (2020). Turmeric: potential health benefits. Nutrition Today, 55(1), 45-56.
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