Cardamom is also known as- Elettaria cardamomum, cardamon, green or true cardamom, etc.
This plant is native to tropical regions1 of India, Sri Lanka, and Burma. It has also been cultivated in various tropical areas throughout the world. Cardamom generally grows under the covering of tall trees in humid, hot, moist tropical rainforest situations where daily temperatures rarely dip beneath 22.2 degrees C. In semi-tropical climates, these plants are raised indoors in a hot greenhouse or a heated, shady, humid room. They are reproduced by rhizome division. Cardamom is globally traded in the form of whole fruits and seeds.
Species: E. cardamomum
Elettaria cardamomum plant grows to approximately 2 to 4 meters in height. The leaves alternate in two ranks, linear-lanceolate and 16 to 24 inches (40–60 cm) long. The leaves also have a long sharp tip. The flowers are pale violet or white to lilac, originated in a loose spike 12 to 24 inches long. The fruit is a yellow-green pod-like and three-sided (0.39 to 0.79 inches). Each fruit contains 15 to 20 brown or black seeds. The fruits are needed to be hand-picked. The seeds have a slightly spicy and aromatic flavor like camphor.
The seed pods and seeds are used in various ways.
The TLC2 confirmed quercetin’s appearance (0.5 µg/mL), kaempferol, and rutin, in the extract. Other significant compounds like- ?-terpinyl acetate, 1,8-cineole, sabinene, myrcene, and 4-terpinene-4-ol ware found in the essential oil.
Traditional Uses and benefits
- Cardamom is a well-known seasoning or spice. It’s used to brew up a pleasuring spicy tea.
- The green seed pods are dehydrated, and seeds are used as a spice for numerous Indian cuisines. Cardamom powder is also used in various dishes.
- It also commonly shows a laxative effect and reduces stomach pain, gripping, and flatulence.
- Cardamom is also used to treat vomiting, nausea, and indigestion, including expelling phlegm out of the human body.
- Cardamom seed oil is beneficial for the digestive system. Its pleasant fragrance can develop a positive mindset.
- The Elettaria cardamomum also shows severe impacts on the respiratory system. The seed contains 1, 8-cineole content in high amounts. The chemical will help to promote fresh breathing and respiratory wellness.
- The use of Cardamom could benefit someone suffering from metabolic syndromes. It carries natural phytochemicals that may be capable of resisting cancer.
- Last but not least, Cardamom essential oil exhibited potent antimicrobial activity. For that, the oil can kill fungi and bacteria. The Cardamom extracted oil is also used as Insect Repellent.
Dosage and Precautions
It is subject to the age, sex, and condition of the patient. The patients should consult the pharmacist and doctors for different dosages as needed.
The essential oil and extract exhibited significant neurotoxicity in the rotarod test at the doses of 0.75 mL/kg and 1.5 g/kg sequentially. No mortalities were detected up to 0.75 mL/kg and 2 g/kg for the essential oil and extract, respectively.
The Cardamom or Elettaria cardamomum is widely used in cooking and various medicines. Every medicine is potentially dangerous! Therefore, always consult a physician or pharmacist before administering and prescribed or over-the-counter drugs comprising Elettaria cardamomum chemicals.
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- Tropical regions: Retrieved from the wikipedia.org website. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elettaria_cardamomum
- TLC: Retrieved from the sciencedirect.com website.
- Toxicity: Retrieved from medicalnewstoday.com website.